What is a monkey?

  • Monkeys are taxonomically split into two separate groups
    • Old world monkeys
    • New world monkeys
  • New world monkey are part of the Platyrrhini infraorder while Old world monkeys re part of the Cercopithecoidea family.
  • New world monkey characteristics
    • All located in the new world (ie North America, and South America )
    • Arboreal
    • All have tails
      • Some are specialized for prehensile til use
    • Small to medium sizes
    • No opposable thumbs
    • Groups of new world monkeys
      • Callitrichids: Marmosets and Tamarins
      • Juvenile-pygmy-marmoset-portrait.jpg
        • Claws
        • Feed on gums and insects
        • Generally give birth to twins
      • Cebids: Capuchin monkey, squirrel monkey
        • Crested-capuchin-in-tree.jpg
        • Prehensile tails
        • Insectivores and frugivores
      • Aotus: Owl or Night monkeys
        • Colombian-night-monkey-perched-in-tree.jpg
        • Live in family groups of 2 to 4 animals
        • Sleep in tree holes
        • Nocturnally active
      • Atelines: Howler monkeys, Woolly monkeys, Spider monkey and Muriquis
        • Unknown.jpeg
        • Largest new world monkeys
        • Live in groups of multi male and females
        • All have prehensile tails
  •  Old world monkey characteristics
    • All located in the Old world (ie Asia and Africa)
    • Non prehensile tail
    • Tend to be more terrestrial then old world monkeys
    • Larger bodied than new world monkeys
    • Ischial tuberosities or Callosities
      • Hardened surface on rump that acts as callus sitting pads
    • Tend to live in large groups with 1 male or multi groups males and females
    • Dominance is extremely important in social interactions
    • Groups of old world monkeys
      • Cercopithecinae: Baboons, Mangabeys, Mandrills, Guenons, Patas Monkeys and Macaques
        • Male-hamadryas-baboon-in-threat-display.jpg
        • Larger and broader incisors than those of the colobines
        • Molars built for grinding and crushing seeds
        • Tend to be frugivores
        • Cheek pouches
          • Allows the monkeys to store unripe fruits and seeds
            • Allows monkey to collect as much food possible
            • Salivary enzymes help break down toxic compounds in unripe fruit and toxic seeds.
      •  Colobinae: Langur and Proboscis monkey
        • Gray-langur-sitting-on-the-ground.jpg
        • Sacculated stomach
          • Helps digest leaves and highly toxic seeds
        • Tend to be folivorous
        • Narrow incisors
        • Long legs than Cercopithecines
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