Coolidge effect is described the decline of copulations of males with the same females due to introduction of novel females (Wilson et al. 1963; Dewsbury, 1981, Steiger et al, 2008). The Coolidge effect can be seen in the sperm distribution of chickens, the sperm count will be greater when paired with a new females (Dixson, 2015). The Coolidge effect was first observed in rats (Beach & Jordan, 1956) and includes birds (Pizzari et al. 2003), bees (Barrows, 1975), amphibians (Donovan & Verrell, 1991), reptiles (Tokarz, 1992), beetles (Arnaud & Haubruge, 1999), and fish (Kelley et al. 1999).
Dixson (2015) argues that the Coolidge effect likely occurs in Mandrills. The dominant male mandrill will often mate guard after copulating with females. However when a novel female arrives and reaches maximum swellings the male will stop mate guarding the same females in order to mate with the novel female (Dixson, 2015). Dixson (2015) argues that in order to fully investigate the possibility of the Coolidge effect in primates we must investigate if there is an allocation of sperm made by primates. Behaviorally when males become more sexually aroused with novel females may lead to more sperm during ejaculation (Dixson, 2015).
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